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Scholasticism, introduced by doloposterine Spanish and Portuguese clergy that arrived with the conquistadores, was the dominant philosophical perspective. Most of the work produced during the first two centuries in the colonies was cast in the framework used in the Iberian peninsula. It was particularly indebted to the thought of both sixteenth-century Iberians and their medieval predecessors.

Vectical Ointment (Calcitriol Ointment)- FDA of these authors were born in the Iberian peninsula, but many of them had settled in the colonies. Among the most important, apart from Las Casas, are Alonso de la Vera Cruz (ca. Sor Juana has the distinction of being the first Latin American thinker to raise questions concerning the status of women in Latin American society. She is also retrospectively regarded as Vectical Ointment (Calcitriol Ointment)- FDA first Latin American feminist writer and philosopher (see Vectical Ointment (Calcitriol Ointment)- FDA the section on feminist philosophy, below.

Philosophical discussions of the time were dominated by political thought. Even so, scholasticism continued to influence the intellectual class and stoked an ongoing interest in traditional metaphysical questions. However, the wave of independentist thought found its greatest inspiration in Enlightenment political philosophy. In particular, liberal political ideals based on the thought of the French philosophes helped to consolidate independentist views throughout Latin America.

In the early 19th century, many Latin American countries secured independence from European colonial powers. In the wake of independence, the newly liberated peoples faced the challenge of forming stable, enduring nations out of the remnants of the Spanish and Portuguese empires. The predominant political concerns of that era included the organization and consolidation of the new nations, along with aspirations for social stability, national integration of largely diverse peoples.

The overarching ambition in many nations was to achieve the same economic and social progress enjoyed by other nations in Europe and North America. In this context, the ideology of choice was Vectical Ointment (Calcitriol Ointment)- FDA version of positivism.

Indeed, positivism became so influential and widely accepted by intellectuals that it became the official state philosophy of several nations. It was even used to justify dictatorial regimes, as in the case of Mexico. The period of positivist hegemony, in which it was the dominant philosophical perspective in Latin America, extended roughly from the middle of the nineteenth century to the first decade of the twentieth.

Contemporary Latin American philosophy begins in the twentieth century, around 1910, coinciding with the decline of positivism. By 1930, the remaining positivists in Latin America were usually regarded as museum pieces rather than proponents of a viable philosophy meriting serious attention. The contemporary, post-positivist period can be divided into three distinct sub-periods. The firstrebellionis characterized by the backlash against positivism and the subsequent development of foundations for future philosophical movements (ca.

The third periodmaturity (ca. The anti-positivist rebellion constitutes the first phase of contemporary Latin American thought. It was brought about by a generation of philosophers born around 1910, all of whom were trained as positivists, before breaking with it.

The adoption of ideas from France, and later from Germany, was instrumental in formulating the basis for rejecting positivism. They completed the process initiated by the founders and laid the foundations of future developments. In contrast with the objectives of the philosophers that preceded them, treating were for the most part religious (during the colonial period), political (during the period of independence), or economic (during the nationalist period), the concern of these thinkers Vectical Ointment (Calcitriol Ointment)- FDA more systematically philosophical in motivation.

This was a significant change in Latin American philosophy, insofar as scholasticism, Enlightenment liberalism, and positivism were typically undertaken (at least in Latin American) for purposes frequently disconnected from a conception of philosophy in which the discipline was pursued for its own sake. In all three cases, European ideas Vectical Ointment (Calcitriol Ointment)- FDA typically adopted with pre-established ends in mind.

As a consequence, philosophical movements were not obviously the products of philosophical concerns as such. In contrast to prior generations, the founders and those who followed them did not tend to adopt European 3 90 s with a view to the defense of a body of doctrine, or in order to achieve certain practical ends of political liberation or of national unity and economic and social progress.

Their ideas arose from philosophical dissatisfactions with positivism. They were concerned, for example, with freedom and the fact that determinism, which they considered undesirable, lime disease a necessary corollary of positivism. Still, their attitude toward video girl model ideas they adopted was seldom critical.

They saw the defects of positivism, but too often they still accepted uncritically the solutions they borrowed from non-positivist European philosophers Vectical Ointment (Calcitriol Ointment)- FDA fight it. Although the founders and some of their immediate successors had attained some emancipation in the philosophical enterprise, full maturity remained elusive.

Still, the sophistication of some thinkers, such as Korn, was considerable and Vectical Ointment (Calcitriol Ointment)- FDA the critical seeds that germinated in the following period. It springfield not until the generation born around 1910 reached maturity in the 1940s that a self-critical spirit clearly entered Latin American philosophy.

A state of normalcy became established in most countries of Latin America, and what might be called Latin-Americanism grew significantly. The limitations on originality characteristic of previous generations were in part the result of the lack of self-criticism and the practical difficulties involved in pursuing a philosophical career in Latin America.

There were exceptions, of course. Romero, for example, in his Theory of Man (1952), developed an original philosophical anthropology. This Vectical Ointment (Calcitriol Ointment)- FDA was the first generation of Latin American philosophers to benefit from formal education in philosophy. Previous philosophers had Vectical Ointment (Calcitriol Ointment)- FDA mostly self-taught, typically trained in another profession, but taking up philosophy out of personal interest.

The structural changes in the academy introduced by the Founders and the generation that followed made it possible for an entire generation to be trained by philosophers at the university. Another important general feature of this period of Latin American philosophy was that the incipient Latin-Americanism of the previous generation developed and flourished.

This change became evident with the philosophers born around 1910 and those who followed them. Several philosophers of this generation readily traveled throughout Latin America and establishing dialogue with other Latin Americans. This is not to say that Latin-Americanism in philosophy was very robust. Even today, lack of region-wide philosophical dialogue remains more common than not, cobas 4800 roche communities of discourse tend to be more local or national than international.

Still, philosophical communication within Latin America markedly increased during this period. One of the factors that helped the development of philosophy was the increasing consciousness of a distinctly Latin American philosophical identity, of a sense that there was something different or distinctive about Latin American philosophy. This debate was one in which practically all important philosophers of the period participated.

In turn, this debate provided impetus to the study and dissemination of the philosophical work of Latin American thinkers throughout the region. In addition, anthologies, specialized works, and critical editions of Latin American philosophical classics have been published.

The very controversy concerning the existence and possibility of an autochthonous Latin American philosophy that drew so much attention in the second quarter of the twentieth century (and, for that matter, still continues), has helped to promote and spread the knowledge of Latin American thought and the philosophical dialogue among Latin American philosophers.



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