Journal of quaternary science

Journal of quaternary science commit error

Our set of primers STerF and STerR amplified B. Importantly, these primers did not amplify any of the nine tested strains from all three B.

Furthermore, by using the newly developed PCR primers, we were also able to detect B. Additionally, 13 of 33 swabs collected from live fire salamanders from Drotrecogin alfa (Xigris)- FDA journal of quaternary science population in Bunderbos, Journal of quaternary science Netherlands, in 2010 tested positive with this PCR, in contrast to journal of quaternary science of 51 swabs from fire salamanders from a stable population in Belgium.

Our PCR method thus allows the rapid screening of both extant populations and archived specimens for the presence of B. Chytridiomycosis in amphibians can no longer be attributed to a single species of chytrid, but can be caused journal of quaternary science either B.

Our results reveal striking similarities and differences between B. Both fungal species share at least the following hallmarks: (i) induction of a lethal skin disease and (ii) association with mortality events and severe population decline.

In contrast, it is as yet unclear to what extent B. However, development of erosive vs. Because the majority of recent B. However, the emergence of the pathogenic B. Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans Martel, Blooi, Bossuyt and Pasmans sp.

Thalli predominantly monocentric, although some colonial. Development exogenous with sporangia forming at tip of germ tube. Resting spore not observed. Ultrastructure highly similar to that of B.

Nucleus located outside the ribosomal mass, multiple mitochondria and numerous lipid globules. Position of the nonflagellated centriole in free swimming zoospores varies from angled to parallel to kinetosome. Partial nucSSU rDNA GenBank accession no. KC762294, partial nucLSU rDNA GenBank accession no. The species epithet salamandrivorans (sa. A liver suspension was inoculated on IgH2 and RTG cells.

PCRs were performed to detect the presence of herpesviruses journal of quaternary science, adenoviruses (12), iridoviruses (13), Chlamydiales (14), and B. Immunohistochemistry was performed on all skin samples to detect B.

Transmission electron microscopy of epidermal samples was performed with glutaraldehyde fixation in 0. Due to the severe autolysis of these animals, the postmortem examination was limited to skin histopathology and PCR for the detection of herpesviruses, adenoviruses, iridoviruses, Chlamydiaceae, and B.

Skin samples without contaminating bacterial or journal of quaternary science growth were transferred to TGhL broth once zoospores were seen on the agar plates. A 10-d-old subculture was frozen in liquid nitrogen (20). Zoospores were obtained by washing the agar plate with 2 mL of 0.

The number of zoospores in the suspension was determined using a hemocytometer. Each condition was tested in triplicate. Cultures were considered dead if no growth occurred within 10 d. PCRs were done on the chytrid culture obtained to amplify the 18S, 28S, and the 5. Based on the ITS1-5. DNA of journal of quaternary science pure culture of B.

Using primer set STerF and STeR, we assessed whether DNA of nine B. All derived amplicons were sequenced. The morphology of the chytrid isolate in TGhL agar and broth was examined using inverted, phase contrast, and scanning (22) and transmission electron microscopy (23).



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