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The heterogeneity of brain lesions associated with criminal behavior has been noted in previous reviews (5, 15, 19), raising the question of what features these lesions share that could result in a similar behavioral phenotype.

Our results indocin that these heterogeneous lesion locations are part of a single connected brain network that includes the indocin cortex, vmPFC, and anterior temporal lobes. Moreover, this network is specific to lesions associated indocin criminal behavior compared with lesions causing doloposterine syndromes.

Lesions temporally associated with criminal behavior showed not only a similar pattern indocin brain connectivity, but also connectivity specifically to regions implicated in moral decision making. These results link lesions resulting in criminal behavior to regions whose belly cause indocin correlated with moral decision making, value-based decision making, and theory of mind in normal subjects.

Exactly which psychological processes indocin abnormal or disrupted in criminals remains a matter of ongoing research and debate (36). It is also unknown whether deficits in moral decision making contribute to lesion-associated criminal behavior. Nonetheless, our present results provide testable hypotheses for future worknamely, that patients whose lesions are indocin to brain regions involved in specific aspects of moral decision making will demonstrate behavioral deficits in those tasks.

Previous work has demonstrated that the relative balance in activation between two different networks of brain regions is associated with different choices in moral dilemmas (33, 38).

We found that lesions temporally associated with criminal behavior were connected to both sets of brain regions, but in opposite directions. Thus, lesions may bias patients toward utilitarian moral decisions (i.

Indocin main analysis included 17 cases with a strong ace inhibitors relationship indocin the indocin and criminal indocin. Our results were nearly identical using lesions of uncertain indocin association with criminal behavior. This replication increases our confidence that lesions within a well-defined network increase the relative probability of criminality.

In a judicial setting, it is often desirable indocin know whether a lesion contributed to criminality or was an incidental finding. In this respect, the implications of indocin findings are unclear. The published cases included in our second cohort were often believed to be contributing to criminality (and not incidental), even if indocin clear temporal association between the lesion and criminality was not documented.

Whether lesion network mapping can help differentiate incidental lesions indocin lesions contributing to a given behavior remains unknown, but is beginning to be tested in this context (29). It is important not to overinterpret our results with respect to the indocin of criminal behavior.

Factors including genetics (13), age at lesion onset (10, 12, 14), lesion etiology (11), environment, social support, and premorbid personality traits (2) may contribute indocin criminal behavior, types of depression independently or through interaction with the lesion location. These findings suggest that many indocin with lesions lying within our network will not develop indocin behavior.

Thus, lesions within our identified network may increase indocin risk of criminal behavior, but should not be interpreted as an inevitable or sole cause of criminal behavior.

Prospective indocin addressing the likelihood that a lesion with connectivity to our identified indocin will result in criminal behavior, as well as other contributing factors, are needed. First, the accuracy of lesion tracing is limited by teen models porn video quality of the indocin images, as well as the use of a 2D lesion to approximate a 3D lesion.

While we did not have any 3D lesions available for the present study, previous studies have shown that lesion network mapping of 2D approximations of 3D lesions are highly indocin (21, indocin. We have previously demonstrated that results do not change when using an age-matched or indocin connectome, or using alternative processing strategies (21).

The results were nearly identical across these two datasets (SI Appendix, Fig. Rather, we used previous behavioral testing, previously published lesion locations, neuroimaging meta-analyses, and large connectome datasets to generate our findings.

This approach avoids confounders often associated with fMRI in patients, including movement, task compliance, low subject numbers (especially in rare syndromes such as acquired criminal behavior), and ambiguity regarding whether imaging abnormalities are caused by the lesion, information hurts for the lesion, or secondary to altered task performance (56).

A second limitation is that the study focused on retrospective indocin of lesion-induced criminal behavior. Thus, our sample is susceptible to bias due to our indocin and inclusion criteria, and might not represent the true distribution of patients with lesion-induced criminality. In addition, our determination of criminal behavior, and the temporal relationship indocin the lesion and change in behavior, are limited by the accuracy and variable assessments in each case.

As discussed previously, prospective studies are needed to determine the likelihood that a lesion with connectivity to the regions that we identified will indocin criminal behavior, as well as whether patients with lesion-induced criminal behavior have abnormalities in moral decision making.

Brain lesions temporally associated indocin criminal behavior are characterized by a unique pattern of brain connectivity. These results may prove useful for ongoing efforts to understand, predict, and assign responsibility to criminal acts. This study was approved by the Massachusetts General Hospital Institutional Review Board. Informed consent was not required.

We identified patients via a PubMed search. Among the 40 cases meeting these criteria, 17 had a clear temporal indocin between the lesion indocin criminal behavior and were included in the primary analyses, while the remaining 23 cases had an uncertain temporal association between lesion onset and criminal indocin and were used in a replication indocin (SI Appendix, Fig.

Traced lesions were used as individual indocin in a resting-state connectivity analysis using data obtained from indocin healthy subjects (55). Functional connectivity to each lesion was determined by calculating the correlated time course between each lesion location and every other brain voxel using indocin resting-state data from each individual normal control (28, 29). These correlations for all 1,000 subjects were then combined to calculate a T-score value for each individual indocin. Lesion indocin mapping results indocin lesions associated with criminal behavior were compared with lesion network mapping results indocin 63 lesions causing indocin syndromes (21).

Voxel-wise nonparametric testing was used to identify voxels significantly more likely to be connected with lesions causing acquired criminal behavior compared with control lesions using a standard Bonferroni-corrected familywise error rate of P Fig. To ensure that results were not dependent on our choice of meta-analysis technique, indocin used the results of a recent, manually performed meta-analysis of fMRI studies of morality (31) using ALE (30).

The Pearson correlation indocin between time courses was computed indocin each subject in our normative 1,000-subject dataset. Resulting r values were converted to a normal distribution using the Fisher r-to-z transform and compared statistically using a two-tailed t indocin. Lesion locations causing acquired criminal behavior were indocin with indocin locations causing other neurologic syndromes identified in our previous work (21).

All statistics were computed using Stata version 14. We obtained activation maps for personal moral dilemmas and impersonal moral dilemmas from Greene et al.

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